Conflict/Disaster-CLD Article References & Abstracts

Judy Burnside-Lawry and Luis Carvalho. 2016. “A stakeholder approach to building community resilience: awareness to implementation.” International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment 7, No. 1: 4-25. DOI: 10.1108/IJDRBE-07-2013-0028.

Purpose – The paper aims to examine one local government’s efforts to increase local-level engagement in building community disaster resilience. Presenting the empirical evidence of stakeholder engagement activities that increase risk awareness and encourage collective action, the study addresses a key priority for the Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (Hyogo Framework for Action 2) to identify methods for increasing local-level implementation of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.

Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, case study approach is used to explore the case in depth. A review of literature from the multidisciplinary areas of communication, social and political theory frames data collection and analysis. Data collection includes observation, document analysis and interviews with policymakers, practitioners and local stakeholders to document achievements and lessons learnt from all perspectives.

Findings – Preliminary results indicate that strong political leadership and inter-departmental coordination have contributed to engaging local-level participation in disaster risk reduction in the Municipality of Amadora, Portugal. Findings indicate that the implementation of a wide spectrum of public engagement initiatives has increased awareness of hazard risks amongst specific demographic groups and improved community and government capacity to identify and implement risk reduction strategies.

Research limitations/implications – As this study is a work-in-progress and data analysis is in the early stages, interview transcripts included in this paper are limited to members of the team and their Director, Amadora Town Councillor for Civil Protection Services.

Practical implications – It is commonly acknowledged that to date, achievements of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2010-2015 largely remain at the national level and have not reached local levels in a substantial manner. Addressing the need for more industry-led research to explore examples of successful stakeholder participation, the paper’s findings can be used by emergency management practitioners who recognise the need to merge climate change adaptation, risk reduction and local-level engagement to encourage public participation, inclusiveness and proactive planning.

Norberto Carcellar, Jason Christopher Rayos Co and Zarina O Hipolito. 2011. “Addressing disaster risk reduction through community-rooted interventions in the Philippines: experience of the Homeless People’s Federation of the Philippines.” International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) 23, No. 2: 365–381. DOI: 10.1177/0956247811415581.

Abstract: This paper describes the support programme developed by the Homeless People’s Federation Philippines, Inc. (HPFPI) for disaster-affected communities, working with its support NGO, the Philippine Action for Community-led Shelter Initiatives, Inc. (PACSII). The programme developed in response to six major disasters and includes: community-rooted data gathering (assessing the severity and scope of destruction and victims’ immediate needs); trust and contact building; support for savings; the registering of community organizations; and identifying needed interventions, including building materials loans for house repairs. It also includes negotiating for land for transit housing and land acquisition for permanent housing construction. The paper also discusses the limits to community processes without government support, and through a case study in the city of Iloilo shows the scale and scope of what can be achieved when local government works with community organizations. The HPFPI and PACSII are also developing disaster risk reduction initiatives by profiling at-risk communities and establishing what can be done to reduce disaster risk. These efforts find impetus in enabling national policies and practice that have shifted from disaster response to disaster risk reduction, and funding for disaster response that can be drawn on for pre-disaster risk reduction.

Emily Chamlee-Wright and Virgil Henry Storr. 2011. “Social capital as collective narratives and post-disaster community recovery.” The Sociological Review 59, No. 2.

Abstract: This paper examines how social capital aids in post-disaster community recovery and redevelopment. While previous studies on social capital and post-disaster recovery have tended to focus on social networks as a source of necessary assistance, the primary focus of this study is on how social capital in the form of collective narratives affects post-disaster recovery. We argue that collective narratives can shape the recovery strategies that individuals adopt. To illustrate this we examine the post-Katrina recovery efforts in St. Bernard Parish, an area devastated by flooding and significant environmental damage. In particular, we focus on the shared narrative that dominated qualitative interview data collected in St. Bernard, namely, its shared identity as a close-knit, family-oriented community comprised of hard workers. This narrative led community members to adopt a strategy that emphasized self-reliance.

Victoria Cronin & Peter Guthrie. 2011. “Community-led resettlement: From a flood-affected slum to a new society in Pune, India.” Environmental Hazards 10, No.3-4: 310-326. DOI: 10.1080/17477891.2011.594495.

Abstract: This paper describes the resettlement process of a community devastated by annual floods, to newly constructed housing in Pune, India. The relocation from Kamgar Putala slum to a housing society at Hadapsar was organized by a community-led NGO partnership in 2004. The housing development was coordinated by the local NGO Shelter Associates with significant community participation. The housing has been revisited in 2010 to evaluate the sustainability of the resettlement project’s delivery model via stakeholder perception. The process of organizing for resettlement after natural disaster is described along with the implementation and evaluation of the new housing nearly six years after initial occupation. The strong partnership approach overcame a series of political and financial hurdles at various stages of the relocation project. The story of resettling Kamgar Putala is detailed alongside an outline of the current political climate for an alternative slum-upgrading policy in India and Pune. The advantages of an empowered community supported by an influential local NGO demonstrate a commendable team effort which has tackled the threat of floods. The paper highlights the merits of a community-led partnership approach to housing development for achieving sustainable urban development as well as the alleviation of poverty in a developing context.

David Dodman, Diana Mitlin and Jason Rayos Co. 2010. “Victims to victors, disasters to opportunities Community-driven responses to climate change in the Philippines.” IDPR 32, No. 1. doi:10.3828/idpr.2009.10.

Abstract: Advocates of community-based adaptation claim that it helps to identify, assist, and implement community-based development activities, research and policy in response to climate change. However, there has been little systematic examination of the ways in which existing experiences of dealing with hazard events can inform community-based adaptation. This article analyses the experience of the Homeless People’s Federation of the Philippines in respect of community-led disaster responses, with the aim of informing future discussions on the role of planning for climate change adaptation in low- and middle-income countries.

Domínguez, María Teresa Martínez, and Eurig Scandrett. 2016. “The Politics of Environmental Justice: Community Development in Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazonia.” In Politics, Power and Community Development, edited by Meade Rosie R., Shaw Mae, and Banks Sarah, 159-78. Bristol: Bristol University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1t896hc.14.

Abstract: This chapter constitutes a critical reflection on these experiences in dialogue with Scandrett. We understand community development to be a process through which communities collectively mobilise to defend or enhance their means of livelihood and quality of life and a practice by key individuals who consciously facilitate this process, whether through community appointment, political commitment or professional employment. Theorists of community development have recognised the contradictions in its practice. Since the origins of community development in European colonialism and ‘development’ as a means of building the allegiance of post-independence populations, community workers have been located within communities that have been identified as ‘problematic’ by outsiders, and tasked with the contradictory role of supporting communities to identify and mobilise in support of their collective interests which may be opposed to the interests of the powerful (Mayo, 2008).

For the purpose of this chapter we have classified the actors in the relationship between community and the oil industry as the ‘powerful’, the ‘survivors’ and the ‘intermediaries’, all of whom have some locus in community work. The ‘powerful’ includes the state and foreign oil companies, state institutions, public relations (PR) companies, the military and foreign governments. The ‘survivors’ consist of indigenous people and their local, regional and national organisations. The ‘intermediaries’ include local, national and international NGOs and aid agencies, the Church, local councils, activists, academics and some governmental institutions that lead with indigenous issues. These categorisations are not intended to be analytical but rather heuristic and it is acknowledged that complex diversity exists within them. However, in interpreting the role which key agents play in the processes that are either explicitly named or may be understood as community development, this categorisation is helpful.

In a region where the presence of the state is minimal, the oil industry has become the main source for community development in indigenous communities through its ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ (CSR) programmes in an effort to consolidate its presence in indigenous territory, what Collins (2006) has called ‘dispossession through participation’. In many cases these industry-led attempts at community development are in conflict with communities’ own development strategies and life projects. Some indigenous groups have evolved and transformed over the centuries into societies that represent a troublesome alternative to the current dominant neoliberal system that is based on concentration of power and accumulation of wealth.

Kathryn A. Frahm, Patrick J. Gardner, Lisa M. Brown, David P. Rogoff, and Adewale Troutman. 2014. “Community-Based Disaster Coalition Training.” Journal of Public Health Management Practice 20, No. 5: S111–S117. DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000058.

Introduction: One key activity of the University of South Florida Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center is designing, developing, and delivering community preparedness, response, and recovery system training.

Rationale: Coalitions are vital for addressing emergencies or disaster situations within communities. The University of South Florida Community-Based Disaster Coalition was designed to address the challenges of building and sustaining coalitions, emphasize methods to enhance their sustainability and effectiveness, and strengthen their purpose and community impact during disasters.

Methods/Activity: Teams of participants were offered 2 years of training to support coalition-building efforts. In year 1, participants engaged in 3 days of facilitator-led instruction, hands-on activities, tabletop exercises, and breakout groups to learn techniques to strengthen their coalition, which are the focus of this study. In year 2, participants engaged in additional training through course refreshers, distance learning opportunities, and webinars. Participants were grouped by county or region and comprised 6 to 9 people from a range of backgrounds and professions.

Results/Outcomes: During the 2012 (year 1) trainings, 184 people attended the program, representing nearly half (31; 46%) of Florida counties. Performance data indicated that participants significantly improved their knowledge scores, and course evaluations indicated that they were satisfied with the course overall.

Discussion: The Community-Based Disaster Coalition trainings focused on community capacity of disaster response in 31 counties, which represents close to 13 million people or nearly three-fourths of Florida residents. Training evaluations supported previous findings regarding critical coalition elements for development and sustainment, such as clear coalition purpose and goals.

Lessons Learned/Next Steps: Several lessons were evident and inform future Community-Based Disaster Coalition efforts including adapting training to meet coalition needs; supporting the process of coalition building; following up with extended training opportunities and resources; continuing to provide trainings to counties that have not yet participated; and expanding training in other states, regions, territories, and internationally.

Christine M. Kenney, Suzanne R. Phibbs, Douglas Paton, John Reid, and David M. Johnston. 2015. “Community-led disaster risk management: A Māori response to Ōtautahi (Christchurch) earthquakes.” Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies 19, No. 1: 9-20. http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/issues/2015-1/AJDTS_2015-1_Kenny.pdf.

Abstract: Since September 2010, a series of earthquakes have caused widespread social, financial and environmental devastation in Christchurch, New Zealand. Anecdotal evidence suggests that local Māori responded effectively to facilitate community recovery and resilience. Cultural technologies that are protective in times of adversity have previously been noted in Māori communities, but rarely documented. An ongoing research project conducted in partnership with the local Christchurch Iwi (tribe) Ngāi Tahu, has been identifying, and documenting the ways Māori cultural factors have facilitated disaster risk reduction and management in response to the earthquakes.

A qualitative research methodology ( Te Whakamāramatanga), based on Ngāi Tahu values, and practices has shaped the community-based participatory research design. Māori research participants were recruited purposively and through self-selection. At the time of writing, the researchers had conducted semi-structured interviews with 43 Māori research participants. Culturally relevant (dialogical and narrative) interviewing approaches have been used to gather research information and facilitate trusting relationships between researchers and local Māori communities. Community engagement has been fostered, as well as a capture of Māori understandings and practices associated with risk reduction and mitigation, disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Data analysis draws on social and risk theories as well as indigenous epistemological concepts. Initial data analysis suggests that within the New Zealand context, Civil Defence and Emergency Management policies and disaster risk reduction practices may be enhanced by the respectful integration of pertinent Māori knowledge and strategies.

Ngāi Tahu has a statutory governance role in the Christchurch rebuild as stipulated in the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority Act (2011) and relational links with the New Zealand government and local authorities. Accordingly, information arising from data analysis, tribal knowledge, and Māori emergency management practices documented during this project is shaping development of contextualised risk reduction and disaster management strategies at urban and regional levels. Upon project conclusion, research results and recommendations will be disseminated to Iwi (tribes) and key stakeholders, to facilitate Māori disaster management capability, and disaster preparedness, risk reduction, and recovery planning throughout New Zealand. The researchers anticipate that lessons learned from this research may have relevance for other small island states and/or countries with indigenous populations that have similar value systems and bodies of traditional knowledge.

Roy Maconachie, Gavin Hilson. 2013. “Editorial introduction: the extractive industries, community development and livelihood change in developing countries.” Community Development Journal, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 347–359, https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bst018

Abstract: This paper introduces a special issue on the extractive industries, community development and livelihood change in developing countries. The collection of papers presented in the issue reflects upon a broad range of emerging community development challenges surrounding the growth of the mining, and oil and gas sectors in different settings across sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Melanesia. Recognizing the distinction between ‘community-led’ development and ‘corporate-controlled’ development, the contributions critically explore how different stakeholders respond to extractive industries development and reflect upon the role that communities might play in mitigating some of the problematic issues that arise. The collection sheds new light on the complex relationships between communities, companies, governments and non-governmental actors and provides a more nuanced picture of the challenges faced in pursuing more sustainable community-led trajectories.

McEwen, Lindsey, Franz Krause, Owain Jones and J. Garde Hansen. 2012. “Sustainable Flood Memories, Informal Knowledge And The Development Of Community Resilience To Future Flood Risk.” Flood Recovery Innovation and Response.

Abstract: The UK policy change from ‘flood defence’ to ‘flood risk management’ in the 1990s has involved shifts to more distributed flood risk management responsibilities. This poses questions about roles of floodplain residents in community-led adaptation planning for changing flood risk, and how these roles can be supported/strengthened. Research evidence emphasises importance of informal/local/lay knowledge, ‘watery sense of place’, flood memories and shared flood heritage, in how communities prepare for, and recover from, floods. This paper outlines initial research outcomes from an interdisciplinary UK Economic and Social Research Council-funded research project that proposes the concept of ‘sustainable flood memory’ in the context of effective flood risk management. This is conceived as an approach to memory work that is community focused, archival, integrating individual and collective experiences, involving inter- and intra-generational communication, and strategies for its future. The project aims to increase understanding of how flood memories provide a platform for developing informal knowledge, so creating social learning opportunities in communities that can increase their adaptive capacities and flood resilience. It explores: how communities remember and archive flood experiences; how local flood knowledge is materialised, assimilated and protected; the role of catastrophic floods (e.g. July 2007, River Severn, UK) in building ‘community’ memory and flood risk knowledge; and whether informal knowledge is tacit or otherwise, if and how it is learned, and whether it can be transmitted, developed, revitalised and returned in settings where it is lost or lacking.

Rosalinda Pineda Ofreneo and Mylene D. Hega. 2016. “Women’s solidarity economy initiatives to strengthen food security in response to disasters Insights from two Philippine case studies.” Disaster Prevention and Management 25, No. 2: 168-182. DOI: 10.1108/DPM-11-2015-0258.

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the knowledge gained from the experiences of community-based, women-led organizations of workers in the informal economy which strengthen food security, enhance livelihoods in peri-urban areas through solidarity economy initiatives, and advance women’s empowerment as they respond to disasters arising from climate change.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on case studies of Buklod Tao in San Mateo, Rizal, and the PATAMABA chapter in Sta. Barbara, Iloilo. The study was conducted within the tradition of gender-responsive participatory action research anchored on a human rights-based approach.

Findings – Experience of flooding motivated mature organizations of women informal workers to establish community-based peri-urban gardens connected to other solidarity-based sustainable livelihood initiatives to address food security concerns, increase income, and mitigate the impact of similar disasters. Although women have been empowered through these initiatives, much still has to be done to transform gender relations in various spheres.

Research limitations/implications – This research process lends itself toward unearthing gender inequalities which would otherwise remain hidden.

Practical implications – The solidarity-based initiatives documented in these case studies may be adopted by women informal workers’ organizations in similar situations to advocate for and attain food security.

Originality/value – Solidarity-based strategies to attain food security among women informal workers are rarely documented for assessment and knowledge sharing. How they are or can be further empowered by these initiatives is a significant contribution to the literature on gender and disasters.