Author: Jenny Hodgson, Originally published at www.bond.org.uk, 11 March 2019. Featured photo by Anna Dubuis/DFID – CC BY-NC 2.0.
Our world is changing from the ground up. Whether a community-owned pub in the UK, participatory budget-making in Spain, a community endowment fund in Zimbabwe, or a post-earthquake bare-foot volunteer program in Nepal, local communities are finding new ways of deciding things and doing things for themselves. And they are organizing themselves and the resources they have to do so.
Within the INGO sector, the recent conversations about localisation, resourcing and the future of civil society offer the perfect opportunity for some radical and bold thinking. As a new social renaissance emerges, there are valuable experiences and lessons to draw in from the global south.
What is driving this resurgence of collaborative citizen action?
There is a growing recognition that our collective “ubuntu” – the ties that bind us together as humans – is broken. Digital technologies and social media mean that we are more connected than ever, and yet distrust, isolation and fragmentation characterise our social condition. Increasingly, this global phenomenon has translated into political spaces, as we’ve seen with Brexit, Trump’s election and the rise of right-wing populist parties across Europe.
Societal divides are no longer as simple as north-south or “developed”-“developing”: inequalities within countries are as great as they are between them. Initiatives that set out to organise, mobilise and engage people where they are, to re-connect neighbours with each other and reignite a sense of shared purpose and possibility are crucial to countering these negative forces.
Harnessing the power of people
The world needs community weavers and bridge-builders, people and institutions who can instil hope and build power at the margins of our societies, in villages, towns, cities around the world. This new social renaissance is characterised by distributed, citizen-led networks and “relationalism” rather individualism.
Over the last twenty years, a quiet revolution has been taking place in communities around the world, often despite rather than because of the big machinery of international development aid. Community philanthropy has emerged as a way of organising, as a development strategy and as a set of institutions in countries as diverse as Brazil, Kenya, Russia and Vietnam.
These initiatives have been shaped by local context and culture, and have been led by individuals concerned about disenchantment and disengagement at the community level, frustrated by the failures of traditional development aid. They are inspired by the belief that without local resources, local leadership and local buy-in, development projects will continue to land like fireworks – to flash spectacularly and then die.
Although many of these local funds and foundations – such as the Kenya Community Development Foundation, Tewa – the Nepal Women’s Fund and the Zambia Governance Foundation – were established as one-offs, there is now clear evidence of a distinct community philanthropy “field”.
Take the question of money. Although external resources may make up part of their funding structure, these community philanthropy organisations seek to build local cultures of philanthropy – especially among ordinary people – as a good in itself. In other words, people become active citizens who are part of the solution, fostering collective action and flattening power dynamics between who gives and who receives.
Acknowledging, respecting, valuing and pooling local resources is a direct rebuke of the “beneficiary” mindset that the international development community has helped create.
Shift the power
In the last few years, this scattered and often invisible field (invisible at least in the eyes of the mainstream development sector) has started to organise itself globally, to express its collective voice as an effective alternative to a development system that has been preoccupied by scale and dominated by big institutions.
It has also become a driving force behind the #ShiftThePower movement. Participatory grantmaking, giving circles, community or affiliate funds have emerged as strategies that seek to share and shift power away from the hands of big institutional gatekeepers – regardless of whether they are in the north or south.
Pieces of the solution are already out there for those would care to look, both in terms of practice and theory. If we want to realise the vision of a flatter, networked world driven from the ground up (rather than the funding down), we will all need to join forces, in solidarity, and in the case of big institutions, that may require some fundamental re-writing of roles.
About the author
Global Fund for Community Foundations
Jenny has been the executive director of the Global Fund for Community Foundations since 2006.
At the May 2019 Global Call of the Movement for Community-led Development, we had two excellent presentations:
Claudia Liebler, co-founder of Root Change, presented their “Social Labs” approach pioneered in two districts of Malawi.
Rowlands Kaotcha, Southern Africa regional coordinator for The Hunger Project based in Malawi, presented the Epicenter Strategy, now active in 127 clusters of villages in nine countries of West, East and Southern Africa.
You can also click here to watch the entire 90-minute call and discussion.
Every year, thousands of women’s rights activists from around the world converge on UN Headquarters in New York to push world leaders ever closer – inch by inch – to realizing the vision of women’s full and equal participation. This year’s 63rd session on the Commission on the Status of Women paid special attention to Social Protection.
Social Protection is one of those extremely important issues to women leaders that The Hunger Project has supported in villages around the world. It is defined as “set of policies and programs designed to reduce poverty and vulnerability by promoting efficient labor markets, diminishing people’s exposure to risks, and enhancing their capacity to protect themselves against hazards and interruption/loss of income. Social protection consists of five major elements: (i) labor markets, (ii) social insurance, (iii) social assistance, (iv) micro and area-based schemes to protect communities and (v) child protection.”
Grassroots women leaders are passionate defenders of the most marginalized members of their already marginalized communities: Widows who have been denied pensions because of corrupt beneficiary lists. Women who are harassed with impunity on farms, on the streets, in garment factories and in their homes. Girls kept out of school and forced into child labor. Take the most horrifying of the #MeToo stories you’ve heard and multiply by the hundreds of millions of girls and women exploited with little or no chance of gaining justice never mind protection.
The Hunger Project and the Movement for Community-led Development helped organize two events that emphasized the critical role of women’s leadership in community-led strategies to halt exploitation and ensure social protection in settled communities (on March 15 – link) as well as in the growing migrant populations across our world (March 12 – link).
Perhaps the most moving moment of these events was when Maurice Bloem quoted from the poem “Home” by Warsan Shire. You can hear the poet herself read it below. It is highly relevant to the painful period our world is going through today.
Concurrent to our events, in the main governmental negotiations of the Commission, world leaders agreed to a 51-point set of conclusions that reaffirm “reaffirms that the promotion and protection of, and respect for, the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all women and girls, including the right to development, which are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated, are crucial for the full and equal participation of women and girls.” The Hunger Project has long recognized that integrated approaches are critical to address the multiple burdens on women, and the Commission conclusions call for integrated approaches no less than five times.
Design is more important than affordability. Regarding? Well, arguably anything. But let’s consider social protection.
Let’s first about the fact that approximately 55% of the world’s population does not have full social protection (that’s about 4 billion people). Let’s also think about the reality that in developing contexts or developing countries, the percentage of national budgets allocated to local services is an average of 2% (versus an average of 50% in developing contexts or countries).
For a world where all persons have social protection, the cost exceeds affordability and design is key.
This was the theme of the recently completed 57th Commission on Social Development (CSocD): addressing inequalities and challenges to social inclusion through fiscal, wage and social protection policies. It provided important, complex dialogue between Member States, civil society and UN agencies with less than 11 years left to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs).
It was a Commission that automatically focused on integrated development approaches, policies and the scalable value of community led programming. From the perspective of the Movement for Community-led Development, this was a Commission that highlighted how the local level and community-led designs can fill the resourcing gap to fund much needed social protection.
During CSocD, the Movement dedicated time to this discussion in an event titled “Building Effective Social Accountability Mechanisms at the Local Level to Ensure Social Protection.” Featuring development experts from Church World Service, América Solidaria, and The Hunger Project, the session challenged attendees to explore what social protection needs to look like at the local level and how local persons can mobilize.
Mary Kate Costello of The Hunger Project stated that “social protection at the local level is a conversation of society’s responsibility, will and capacity – as much as it is that of the government and social security payment schemes within the formal work sector.” Regardless of local government services, there is a need for communities and community processes to be 1) inclusive, and; 2) transparent.
Using an example from The Hunger Project’s programming in India, Mary Kate discussed how community groups responsible for social security beneficiary lists reformed their processes to cross-check that persons deceased or no longer needing support were removed and replaced with “low caste” peoples. In Rajasthan, alongside the National Rural Employment Scheme, these beneficiary lists and criteria to qualify are literally painted on the side of the panchayat office for everyone to see.
Knowing your rights. This is a critical component to reach full coverage of social protection. How else can people hold their governments and communities accountable for their commitments and responsibilities? Beyond placing criteria for all to see and/or read [to one another], it duly prudent for civil society to conduct workshops on political rights. This is what América Solidaria carries out in Chile. They hold “know-your-rights training workshops” and also one-on-one legal consultations for employability. Through strong, dependable and fruitful employment, people can pursue their own social protection – regardless of government coverage for social protection.
Assessing what a community and its citizens already have is a crucial step in assessing gaps in social protection, a method that Church World Service (CWS) applies to its global programming. This needs-based assessments at the outset of programming has proven especially useful in cases of migrant assistance. CWS is able to not only determine what needs remain, but also what skills and drivers are present among migrant populations. This can help inform what leadership roles migrants can take in their new settlements, as well as build safe space for their voice and agency.
Andrew Fuys, Senior Director of Global Migration for CWS, discussed the important role of faith leaders in building persons’ voice to ensure their social protection. Faith leaders are often key leaders in local communities, and migrant persons in developing contexts – never mind most people in developing contexts – are persons of faith. In helping to establish “voice allies” between faith leaders and migrant persons, CWS can help to identify joint action toward inclusive social protection.
Fostering voice allies. Building rights awareness. Ensuring transparency of processes. These are key elements of mobilizing social accountability mechanisms for inclusive social protection. This design prevails affordability, especially at the local level.
2019-02-27 Special Learning Event
This was the first Learning Session organized by the newly-formed CLD Learning Working Group, which evolved from the Locus Learning Working Group. Co-chairs: Matt Lineal (Nuru International) and Sia Nowrojee (3D Program for Girls and Women)
Brian Viani, Leadership & Training Strategic Advisor, Nuru International, From ‘Capacity Building’ to ‘Capacity Development’: Definitions and Approaches (slide deck below for download)
Smriti Lakhey, Chief Operating Officer, Root Change, ‘Self-Facilitated’ Capacity Development
Nurhan Kocaoglu, Senior Program Officer, Counterpart International, Recipient or Partner?
The Community-led Development (CLD) Movement Launches Kenya Chapter
NAIROBI, 30 January 2018 –The Community-led Development (CLD) Movement today unveiled the CLD Kenya Chapter at the Heifer International grounds in Nairobi. The Movement is an alliance of civil societies seeking the widespread adoption of grassroots initiatives to empower communities to become the authors of their own development. CLD works to achieve systemic change through long-term, steady interventions rather than short-term projects. In Africa, Kenya follows on chapters established in Ghana, Uganda, Malawi, Benin and Burkina Faso.
The Movement was formally launched alongside the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 in New York. Members include The Hunger Project, Global Communities, Oxfam, FHI360, World Vision and Concern Worldwide, among others. The CLD also has a presence in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Mexico and 10 African nations.
The CLD Kenya seeks to create strategic partnerships and explore how to make community-led development a high priority on development agendas for the Government of Kenya, development partners, the private sector and other key stakeholders.
The Kenyan Government developmental initiatives, such as the Big4 Agenda and Vision 2030, can and must be realized by empowering communities to lead their own development. Article 10 (2) a, b and c of the Constitution of Kenya provides for citizen participation, which is not yet fully realized. The CLD Kenyan Chapter will promote citizen engagement in all counties and develop the capacity of county-level civil society through coordinated action.
CLD is important for Kenya in several ways: Community engagement is grounded in the Kenyan Constitution, it will help the government achieve its goals from devolution to the Big 4 Agenda, and it is critical to Kenya’s development as it transitions to a middle-income country, to ensure no one is left behind.
While addressing the attendees, CLD Founder, John Coonrod stated: “The full success of county government can be a beacon of hope for all of Africa. The Kenya chapter has a unique opportunity to contribute to the region through the many regional offices based in Nairobi.”
Keynote speaker Makunei County Governor and Professor Kivutha Kibwana said: “Our county government system has truly put power directly into the hands of our citizens. They now have the power to voice their highest aspirations and work in partnership with government and civil society to achieve them.”
Global Communities Country Director-Kimberly Tilock added: “Development is not something you do for people but with people. It is certainly easier to just do something top down but to have lasting effective impact you need to effectively involve those that stand to benefit and have a stake in what is done and how it is done.“
Like-minded organizations and individuals are invited to join and contribute to the Movement by:
- Raising the profile of community-led development in SDG-implementation discourse. To this end, Global Communities will develop a shared language for the practices, interventions and policies that enhance community-led development, and we will include this language in our internal and external communications.
- Organizing and participating in seminars, events and meetings that raise the profile of our collective commitment to CLD and its principles, and our approaches to facilitate it.
- Building the evidence base for community-led development, and what identifying how best to enhance it.
- Documenting and sharing best practices through coordinated social media campaigns, webinars and papers on the CLD Movement website.
One of the greatest challenges for community-led development is that in many of the poorest nations, public resources do not reach the communities. While local governments typically get half the public resources in wealthy countries, this number is often well below 10% in many of the poorest nations.
As witnessed by many articles on this site, this data is hard to find. One would hope that every citizen could know what the budget of their local government actually is! We have proposed that the share of public resources going to local government should be a key indicator for SDGs 11 and 16.
In October of 2016, our friends at UCLG published this volume of country profiles with what they could find. We share this link here to buttress advocacy for our colleagues around the world engaging with governments to ensure communities have a change to succeed in their own development.
Part 7 for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-based Violence
December 1, 2018 – World AIDS Day: In the 1980s, the first cases of AIDS were a shock to everyone. It took months for top researchers to understand it. In Africa, where the pandemic became most widespread, the campaign to halt the spread of HIV/AIDS forced both women and men in rural and urban communities to rethink gender roles and other traditions that had prevailed for thousands of years.
Gender fueling the spread of HIV. In Africa, while males do not necessarily have any more sexual partners in a lifetime than men in other regions, they tend to have them concurrently. And women were socially conditioned to not say “no” to sex. In addition, in some areas, sex was part of traditional rituals.
Communities take up the challenge. In such situations, and particularly in a largely rural society, mere “messaging” is never enough. Organizations such as those in the Movement for Community-led Development, needed to launch massive campaigns to provide accurate education about HIV/AIDS to grassroots community leaders – or “animators” – who in turn would educate all the members of the community.
Beyond the Facts: While having people know the facts is crucial, it has also been necessary to create spaces where community members can analyze their own situation – identify their own barriers to halting the spread of HIV (basically their own gender analysis) -and launching their own solutions. In some cases, community members created solutions that the NGO community organizers would have never imagined. Here are some examples from Malawi, which has a high infection rate:
- One group of women complained that they needed a way to control the use of condoms themselves. The animators had no idea there were such things as female condoms, until they contacted the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and discovered such things did exist but “nobody wanted to use them.” The women were provided female condoms and – since they had asked for them – they felt they had “invented” them. They publicized them throughout their communities – spreading the word that “sex was better with them than with male condoms.”
- In another village, there was a closely held tradition of cleansing the “spirit of death” from a home after a man had died, by having someone have sex with the widow – an obvious disaster when the man died of AIDS. The elders said “we have to remove the spirit of death” but concluded they could create a “new tradition” of having a married couple of that family have sex in the home.
- Campaigns were held to promote voluntary testing and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, which was widely successful but was not taking hold in one community, with no explanation. The community members carried out some very private interviews, and learned that the local health workers was not being confidential about test results. He was fired, and the community animators informed everyone that in the other communities there had been no problem with confidentiality, and trust was restored.
Living Positively: Initially, microfinance groups in Malawi were reluctant to loan to HIV-Positive people, on the assumption these people would not have long to live – despite the fact that ARVs were becoming widely available. To overcome this stigma, “Living Positive”with HIV support groups were established, and microfinance organizations reserved a special part of their capital for loans to those groups.
Investing in Community Health. The massive international effort to fight HIV/AIDS initially had the unfortunate side effect of pulling the already-scarce health professionals out of the community health system to focus on HIV/AIDS. Now, the world is coming to recognize that even “single disease” campaigns must intentionally focus on strengthening the overall community health system, and engage community members every step of the way.
Ownership and agency. As Mahatma Gandhi wrote, whatever action we contemplate, we must think of the face of the poorest person we have ever seen, and ask ourselves whether the action we take will restore her to control over her own life and destiny. Applying this wisdom has proven invaluable in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Africa – it was proven again in the response to Ebola (link) and Malaria (link) – and it is a mandate we must apply to all development activities.
Sixth in a series for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-based Violence. Photo: UN Peace Keeping.
Today, November 30, is Benin National Day. What does that have to do with Women, Peace and Security? Well – Benin’s history features the rather famous all-female military regiment of the Kingdom of Dahomey (now present-day Benin). These women warriors fought in wars with the French. The French eventually prevailed, and disbanded the regiment.
Rape as a weapon: Fast-forward to the 4th World Conference for Women in Beijing in 1995, held just at the end of the Bosnian war – a conflict that brought rape as a strategic weapon of war to television screens around the world. This kind of hideous war crime had happened since antiquity, but in the 20th century was carried out on a massive scale, including the “comfort women” sex slaves of the Japanese army in World War II, and the rape of hundreds of thousands of Bangladeshi women by Pakistani troops during the Bangladesh war for independence.
War disproportionately affects women. In today’s conflicts, 70% of casualties are civilians, many are women and children. Many representatives from organizations that now make up the Movement for Community Led Development attended the Beijing World Conference on Women, and met women who were survivors of the mass rapes in Bosnia. The effects of war on women became one of the 12 planks of the Beijing Platform for Action,
Women at the forefront in conflict-affected communities: Sarah Taylor of the International Peace Institute recently wrote: “In many of the world’s most intransigent conflicts, women are mobilized to address the most urgent issues in their communities. Syrian women are negotiating humanitarian relief at the local level and are in the top ranks of the Syrian opposition negotiating team. Women in Central African Republic mediate between local armed groups… In Myanmar, Rohingya women are documenting the crimes carried about by the Tatmadaw [Myanmar armed forces] and women are negotiating ceasefires in Kachin State.” Yet, “women are also overwhelmingly excluded from efforts to prevent, resolve, and rebuild from complex crises.”
Women, Peace and Security: Just five years after Beijing, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1325, which is now the battle cry for women’s leadership on this issue. It reaffirms “the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peace-building, and stressing the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, and the need to increase their role in decision-making with regard to conflict prevention and resolution.” To date 79 countries have National Action Plans for implementing the resolution.
The time is now to step up action: Sarah Taylor concludes: “one of the boldest steps the global community can make is to truly upend how it approaches peace: to move away from ideas of merely including women in broken processes, and to move towards creating necessary systemic changes, built on and unleashing women’s leadership.” Each of us has a role – in every context – to ensure that women are in full and at least equal leadership roles in all decisions that affect people’s lives.